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Development of Sustainable Groundnut Seed Systems in West Africa   
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Groundnut Seed Project
Groundnut supply & demand
Development of sustainable Groundnut seed systems
Project Related Institutions
Workshop - May 2003
Overview of Groundnut
Groundnut Seed Production Systems in
Grountnut Varieties recommended by GGP for West and Central Africa


The Groundnut Seed Project successfully conducted a 2-day training workshop on Groundnut Seed Production and Variety Maintenance from 16th to 17th December, 2003 at IAR, Samaru. Twenty participants invited from Agricultural Development Projects, Farmers' Organizations/Associations, NGOs, Agro-input dealers, Oil Millers and Local Processors attended the workshop. Scientists drawn from within and outside the institute served as resource persons. Declaring the workshop open, the Director of lAR, Dr. S. M. Misari stressed the importance of groundnut to the Nigerian economy. He revealed that several high yielding, disease resistant groundnut varieties were developed by IAR in collaboration with ICRISAT and seeds of these varieties are available in the institute. He therefore called on farmers, seed companies/growers and other stakeholders to inject the new varieties into the farming System in order to boost groundnut production particularly in Nigeria and the West African sub-region at large. The Director also charged the workshop participants to be worthy ambassadors and to impart the skills acquired during the training to the resource-poor farmers to enable them improve their production techniques and boost their production for sustainable income generation.

Participants at Training Workshop

Two Lead Papers were presented at the workshop:

* Groundnut production in Nigeria: problems and suggested solutions B. Tanirnu Ph.D.

• This paper highlighted the major constraints militating against increased groundnut production in Nigeria prominent among which is the dearth of quality seed of improved and adapted groundnut varieties. The paper also suggested an organized governmental and non-governmental intervention through a purposeful commitment to Research and Development as a means of reducing these constraints and improving productivity of groundnut.

* Improved seed as a necessary vehicle for transferring high groundnut yields to the farming community - C. A. Echekwu, Ph.D.

• The paper highlighted the importance of groundnut as a food and cash crop in Nigeria and maintained that the country bas remained a major producer of the crop in the sub-region despite the very wide fluctuations in its production share in the world. For the country to maintain her leading position in groundnut production and to increase current production levels, conscious efforts must be made to enhance the supply of seed of improved groundnut varieties to farmers since seeds are the least-cost input compared with other external inputs, that can assist the farmer to increase his groundnut production.

Five Technical papers were delivered during the workshop:

+ The technical aspects of groundnut seed production.- C.A. Echekwu and S.G. Mohammed
+ Groundnut diseases and their management- O. Alabi
+ Groundnut pests and their management- S.M, Misari + Post-harvest technology in groundnut seedproduction- L.J. Bamaiyi
+ Quality standards in groundnut seed production - V. 0. Mosimabale and E. J. Zidafamor With heavy heart, the Groundnut Seed Project in Nigeria announces the passing -away of Dr A. Joshua, Managing Director, Premier Seed Nigeria Limited, which sad event occurred on the 18'" November 2003. Until his death Dr. Joshua was a member of National Steering committee of GSP

From the Coordinator's Desk

The groundnut seed Project in Nigeria remains committed to forging beneficiary linkages between groundnut farmers and farmers' organizations, private seed companies, groundnut processors, marketers and input suppliers, government agencies, NGOs and other relevant stakeholders to put in place a sustainable groundnut seed System in the country. Groundnut boosters provide a channel of communication between ail stakeholders involved in the implementation of the groundnut seed project in Nigeria. 


The GSP in Nigeria bas successfully organized the first meeting of the National Steering Committee of the project. Details of the meeting will be given in the next edition of Groundnut Boosters.

For further information contact:

Candidus A. Echekwu (National Coordinator)
Stephen M. Misari (Institute Director)
Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru,
Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria, Nigeria.
Tel: +23469550681
Fax: +234 69 550563
E-mail: iar20002001@yahoo.com


From: Y. A. Dodo

The Nigeria Oil Mil! Pic, Kano has expressed its desire to be linked with sources of quality groundnuts having high oil content to reduce their cost of production and increase their efficiency and profit margin. The Public Relations Manager of the company Alhaji Kabiru Inuwa made the call in Kano when participants of the Groundnut Seed Production Training Workshop went on excursion to the oil mill in December 2004. Alhaji Inuwa explained that due to the shortfall in supply of groundnuts the oil mill had to resort to the utilization of other oilseeds such as soybean and cotton seed to augment the mill's production. Therefore, he expressed his delight and willingness to patronize any available sources of supply and called on the project to link them up directly with the producers. Earlier, the Coordinator of the project in Nigeria, Candidus A. Echekwu explained that the visit was at the instance of the project's desire to link up the chain of groundnut production, processing and utilization in the country. He stated that GSP in Nigeria will work in collaboration with other stakeholders including NGOs and Community-based organizations to forge linkages with groundnut farmers and end users of their products.

From: Mike Musa & C. A. Echekwu

Seed is one of thé most valuable resources in agricultural production, and a lifeline to thé development of any nation. 'Seed' describes any phenomenon, material or part of plant that is used to produce food. Within thé framework of national food sufficiency, seed security has aiways been an important and continuons concern among stakeholders in Nigeria. Thé basic requirement for seed security involves thé existence offünctional and sustainable seed supply Systems. Thé better adapted thé seed is to its growing environment, thé better thé improvements in yield and income. Thé focus of any seed programme therefore is to supply farmers with quality seeds according to their needs, delivered and distributed on time, in sufficient quality and quantity, and at a reasonable priée. Thus, thé availability and provision of quality seed is fundamental to a secured livelihood- a hope for the future.

From:E. A. Egwurube

Leafhoppers are insects of the family, Cicadellidae and are slender, small (3-5mm) and green. Both adults and nymphs pierce and suck juices from leaves and leafstalks. The commonest leafhopper that attacks groundnut in northern Nigeria is Empoasca dolichiPoa Poali [Homoptera: Cicadellidae], although there are other species such as E. facialis but their importance on groundnut are considered negligible as they occur in very small numbers in some. The high population of these leafhoppers encountered on groundnut in recent times has been a great concern to the groundnut growers in Zaria. Both adult and nymphs suck sap from young leaves, mostly from the lower surface. The first symptom of attack is a whitening of the veins on the underside of the leaflet Chlorosis then sets in usually at the tip of the leaf and moves down the blade, followed by necrosis again starting at the tip. The crop can take on a scorched appearance as a result of the necrosis. This is called hopper bum. A recent survey conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of E. dolichi in northern Nigeria showed that E. dolichi is. more important on groundnut in the Sudan savanna than in Sahel and Guinea Savanna. For effective control measures, there should be a good practice of field sanitation by removal of weeds such as Rottboellia exaltata Lim from the vicinity of crop farmiand to prevent the high population build-up of E. dolichi on the crop in August and September during the cropping season of groundnut in northern Nigeria. Early sowing of groundnuts will help avoid an attack by leafhoppers. Groundnuts intercropped with crops such as maize, pearl millet, and sorghum will also lower the population of leafhoppers.

Groundnut Plants With Leafthopper Burns

From: C.A. Echekwu & M. Musa

Seed is one of the critical inputs in groundnut production. Diffusion of improved seeds to farmers is an efficient way to increase production of the crop in Nigeria. Although both the formal and informal seed Systems operate side-by-side, the informal seed sector is much more important, supplying more than 75% of the seed requirements for groundnut in the country. This situation which is reflective of low economic activity and lack of professionalism among the operators of the seed sector can be improved if there is a complementarity between the formal and informal seed sectors. This will encourage capacity building in the development of technical and entrepreneurial skills, and management strategies among stakeholders in groundnut seed production. Support from government agencies, seed companies and non-governmental organizations will also create awareness about availability and potentials of improved varieties. The integration of formal and informal seed Systems in Nigeria can only guarantee improved seed supply to the groundnut farmer.


Te Project Manager Dr B. R. Ntare was in Nigeria on a monitoring visit, between 6th an 7th October 2003. He was accompanied by Dr J. Ndjeunga, Senior Economist from ICRISAT Niamey. On arrival at Samaru, the team was briefed by the National Coordinator of GSP in Nigeria Dr C. A. Echekwu on project implementation activities in the country after which they were conducted round the Groundnut Seed production fields. While in Samaru, the team also visited Premier Seed Nigeria Limited. Before leavingNigeria, Drs Ntare and Ndjeunga were opportuned to visit Panda, one of the villages within the Kano pilot site where the farmer-managed, farmer-implemented trials are being conducted and interact with some of the collaborating farmers. The Project Manager was highly impressed with the GSP project implementation in Nigeria and commended the National Project Coordinator and his team for a job well-done.

A Groundnut Seed Production Field At Samaru, Nigeria