Feature Stories

21
Apr

Growing interest for sorghum in Mali

A team of 15 newly recruited agricultural technicians were given an overview of sorghum breeding during a tour of ICRISAT-Mali. This included information about activities such as seed production, and...
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21
Apr

Communicator Awards for ICRISAT

ICRISAT won accolades in four categories at the 22nd Annual Communicator Awards for its work in the communications and marketing areas. The awards were: Award of Excellence: Print (Annual Report...
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Yield difference between farmers practice (FP) and optimum N practice (OS) was negative in low yielding environments.

Yield difference between farmers practice (FP) and optimum N practice (OS) was negative in low yielding environments.

Simulating postrainy sorghum yield response to on-station N management in India

How effective is on-station nitrogen management when applied to the field for postrainy sorghum yields?

New publications

The “efficient boundaries” of international agricultural research: A conceptual framework with empirical illustrations

Authors: Kamanda J, Birner R and Bantilan C

Published: 2017. Agricultural Systems, 150: 78-85.
ISSN 0308521X

Abstract: The international agricultural research centers known as CGIAR have played an important role with regard to global food security. Yet, their mandate remains debated: Should they concentrate on producing global public goods, for which they arguably have a comparative advantage, or should they engage in “downstream” activities of the research-development continuum and promote technology adoption on the ground, so as to increase their impact? This paper contributes to resolving this debate by developing a new conceptual framework, which is based on transaction costs economics and makes it possible to identify a range of factors that determine the comparative advantage of international versus national organizations.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9787/

Root traits confer grain yield advantages under terminal drought in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Authors: Purushothaman R, Krishnamurthy L, Upadhyaya HD, Vadez V and Varshney RK

Published:  2017. Field Crops Research, 201: 146-161. ISSN 03784290

Abstract: Chickpea, the second most important legume crop, suffers major yield losses by terminal drought stress (DS). Stronger root system is known to enhance drought yields but this understanding remains controversial. To understand precisely the root traits contribution towards yield, 12 chickpea genotypes with well-known drought response were field evaluated under drought and optimal irrigation. Root traits, such as root length density (RLD), total root dry weight (RDW), deep root dry weight (deep RDW) and root:shoot ratio (RSR), were measured periodically by soil coring up to 1.2 m soil depth across drought treatments.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9803/

Modelling cereal crops to assess future climate risk for family food self-sufficiency in southern Mali

Authors: Traore B, Descheemaeker K, van Wijk MT, Corbeels M, Supit I and Giller KE

Published:  2017. Field Crops Research, 201: 133-145.
ISSN 03784290

Abstract: Future climate change will have far reaching consequences for smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of whom depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Here we assessed the farm-level impact of climate change on family food self-sufficiency and evaluated potential adaptation options of crop management. Using three years of experimental data on maize and millet from an area in southern Mali representing the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa we calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) model.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9804/

Genotypic variation in soil water use and root distribution and their implications for drought tolerance in chickpea

Authors: Purushothaman R, Krishnamurthy L, Upadhyaya HD, Vadez V and Varshney RK

Published: 2017. Functional Plant Biology, 44: 235-252. ISSN 1445-4408

Abstract: Chickpeas are often grown under receding soil moisture and suffer ~50% yield losses due to drought stress. The timing of soil water use is considered critical for the efficient use of water under drought and to reduce yield losses. Therefore the root growth and the soil water uptake of 12 chickpea genotypes known for contrasts in drought and rooting response were monitored throughout the growth period both under drought and optimal irrigation.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9805/

Assessing the long-term welfare effects of the biological control of cereal stemborer pests in East and Southern Africa: Evidence from Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia

Authors: Midingoyi SG, Affognon HD, Macharia I, Ong’amo G, Abonyo E, Ogola G, Groote HD and LeRu B

Published: 2017. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 230: 10-23. ISSN 01678809

Abstract: The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), undertook a biological control (BC) programme for control of stemborers from 1993 to 2008, to reduce cereal yield losses due to stemborer attack in East and Southern Africa. The programme released four biological control agents—the larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae, the egg parasitoid Telenomus isis and the pupal parasitoid Xanthopimpla stemmator—to control the economically important stemborer pests Busseola fusca, Chilo partellus and Sesamia calamistis. Two of the natural enemies that were released got established and spread to many localities in the region. This study adopted the economic surplus model based on production, market and GIS data to evaluate the economic benefits and cost-effectiveness of the programme in three countries—Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9806/

Incorporation of satellite remote sensing pan-sharpened imagery into digital soil prediction and mapping models to characterize soil property variability in small agricultural fields

Authors: Xu Y, Smith SE, Grunwald S, Abd-Elrahman A
and Wani SP

Published: 2017. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 123: 1-19. ISSN 09242716

Abstract: Soil prediction models based on spectral indices from some multispectral images are too coarse to characterize spatial pattern of soil properties in small and heterogeneous agricultural lands. Image pan-sharpening has seldom been utilized in Digital Soil Mapping research before. This research aimed to analyze the effects of pan-sharpened (PAN) remote sensing spectral indices on soil prediction models in smallholder farm settings. This research fused the panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands of WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, and Landsat 8 images in a village in Southern India by Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Intensity-Hue-Saturation methods.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9813/

Assessing crop model improvements through comparison of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L. moench) simulation models: A case study of West African varieties

Authors: Akinseyea FM, Adam M, Agele SO, Hoffmann MP, Traore PCS and Whitbread AM

Published:  2017. Field Crops Research, 201: 19-31. ISSN 0378-4290

Abstract: Better defining niches for the photoperiod sensitive sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties of West Africa into the local cropping system might help to improve the resilience of food production in the region. In particular, crop models are key tools to assess the growth and development of such varieties against climate and soil variability. In this study, we compared the performance of three process-based crop models (APSIM, DSSAT and Samara) for prediction of diverse sorghum germplasm having widely varying photoperiod sensitivity (PPS) using detailed growth and development observations from field trials conducted in West Africa semi-arid region.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9818/

Spectral matching techniques (SMTs) and automated cropland classification algorithms (ACCAs) for mapping croplands of Australia using MODIS 250-m time-series (2000–2015) data

Authors: Teluguntla P, Thenkabail PS, Xiong J, Gumma MK, Congalton RG, Oliphant AM, Poehnelt J, Yadav K, Rao M and Massey R

Published: 2017. International Journal of Digital Earth: 1-34. ISSN 1753-8947

Abstract: Mapping croplands, including fallow areas, are an important measure to determine the quantity of food that is produced, where they are produced, and when they are produced (e.g. seasonality). Furthermore, croplands are known as water guzzlers by consuming anywhere between 70% and 90% of all human water use globally. Given these facts and the increase in global population to nearly 10 billion by the year 2050, the need for routine, rapid, and automated cropland mapping year-after-year and/or season-after-season is of great importance. The overarching goal of this study was to generate standard and routine cropland products, year-after-year, over very large areas

http://oar.icrisat.org/9859/

Adaptation Processes in Agriculture and Food Security: Insights from Evaluating Behavioral Changes in West Africa

Authors: Somda J, Zougmoré RB, Sawadogo I, Bationo BA, Buah S and Abasse T

Published: 2017. In: Evaluating Climate Change Action for Sustainable Development. Springer International Publishing: 255-269. ISBN 978-3-319-43702-6

Abstract: This chapter focuses on the evaluation of adaptive capacities of community-level human systems related to agriculture and food security. It highlights findings regarding approaches and domains to monitor
and evaluate behavioral changes from CGIAR’s research program on climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS). This program, implemented in five West African countries, is intended to enhance adaptive capacities in agriculture management of natural resources and food systems.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9860/

Farmer Producer Organization in Andhra Pradesh: A Scoping Study. Rythu Kosam Project. Research Report IDC-16

Authors: Raju KV, Kumar R, Vikraman S, Shyam M, Srikanth R, Kumara Charyulu D and Wani SP

Published: 2017. Technical Report. ICRISAT, Patancheru.

Abstract: The declining profitability and rising risk associated with agriculture and allied its activities is being considered some of the major challenges in improving the livelihoods of the rural population in India. Mainly small and marginal farmers constitute the largest group of cultivators (about 85%) in Indian agriculture; having smaller than or about two hectares of operational holdings. The vulnerability to these households is largely attributed to lower scale of operation, lack of information, poor access to cheaper credit, weak participation in the consumers’ markets and consequently, exploitation by intermediaries in procuring inputs and marketing of their produce.

http://oar.icrisat.org/9870/

Reader's Comment

Thanx for wonderful thoughts on sorghum and pearl millets. Perhaps there is greater demand for re-emphasis on nutri-cereals, strengthening of extension services in favor of these crops, involvement of entrepreneurs to promote  by-products and adequate dissemination of knowledge and technology.

Sadamat EVV

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