Safe Reuse of Treated Wastewater for Agriculture

Decentralized wastewater treatment system

The wastewater treatment system consists of constructed wetlands that treat wastewater through phytoremediation process. The quality of water generated is sufficient for irrigation and agricultural activities. Constructed wetlands consist of a filter bed of locally available sand/gravel and vegetated with wetland plants such as Canna indica and Typha1. This ultimately leads to improved crop yields, higher incomes, better livelihoods and safe practices leading to fresh and non-toxic foodgrains and vegetables.

Constructed wetland in Kothapally Telangana, India

INTERVENTION

  • A 60 m X 3 m X 1 m constructed wetland established to treat wastewater from 125 household, approximate flow of 25 m3/day.
Constructed wetland at Kothapally village in India. Treated household wastewater used to irrigate one hectare farm land.

Constructed wetland at Kothapally village in India. Treated household wastewater used to irrigate one hectare farm land.

IMPACTS

  • 65 % removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand, 60 % for sulfate and 67 % for inorganic nitrogen 2.
  • 87% removal efficiency for pathogens measured in terms of Escherichia Coli3.
  • Fodder crops and flowers such as Marigold can be grown using treated wastewater.

Biomass generated from constructed wetlands used for biogas/compost generation:

  • 100 kg organic waste processed by biogas plant.
  • Up to 15 m3 of biogas production capacity per day 4.

The EU Water4Crops initiative brings together 14 Indian and 22 European organizations. 

Constructed wetland in Sangareddy, Telangana 

INTERVENTION

  • Constructed wetlands prepared to treat the effluent coming from the effluent treatment plants of factories.
  • 2,526 households with total population of 12,940 and 4,500 hectares.
  • Increase agricultural productivity by adopting rainwater conservation and harvesting.
  • Building capacity of farmers to develop sustainable water management practices to enhance groundwater availability.
Gradual stabilization and growth of Cana indica, SAB Miller at Sanga Reddy, Telangana .

Gradual stabilization and growth of Cana indica, SAB Miller at Sanga Reddy, Telangana .

IMPACTS

  • 30 – 92 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand in wastewater 4.
  • Dark color of industrial effluent reduced by 32% through an indigenous bacterial consortium 6.
  • 75000 m3 groundwater recharged due to water storage capacity of more than 30000 m3
  • 10% increase in moisture content for black soils and 5% for red soils.
  • 52 families benefitted with increased income of USD 775 per family per annum 7.

Constructed wetland in Kolar, Karnataka8

 INTERVENTION

  • Watershed spread over 1,333 hectares.
  • 1,411 households in 8 villages.
  • Soil and water conservation and groundwater recharge structures constructed were:
    13 farm ponds, 9000 m3 field bunding, 75 gully plugs, 2 ponds for cattle.
  • One wastewater treatment unit constructed 10.
Water harvesting and groundwater recharge structures in Coca-Cola ICRISAT watershed, Kolar, Karnataka

Water harvesting and groundwater recharge structures in Coca-Cola ICRISAT watershed, Kolar, Karnataka

IMPACTS

  • 33,750 m3 total rainwater harvested in one year
  • 2 farmers benefitted by the wastewater treatment unit to grow vegetables and fodder on 1.2 hectares.

Farmer Gopal at his finger millet field grown with integrated water and improved practices.

Farmer Gopal at his finger millet field grown with integrated water and improved practices.

Constructed wetland in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India10

INTERVENTION

  • 6,852 hectares covering 10 villages.
  • Soil & water conservation structures constructed: 2 check dams, 7 farm ponds, 2 percolation tanks, 18 loose boulder structures.
  • 267 farmer participatory crop demonstrations with improved practices for foxtail millet, groundnut and pigeonpea.

IMPACTS

  • 41,620 m3 of net water storage capacity resulting in total conservation of 60,000 m3 of surface run-off water.
  • One wastewater treatment unit connected to 40 households, approximate flow of 51 m3/day.
  • 10 farmers benefitted.

Wastewater treatment unit in M Pendekal, Kurnool, Power Grid Corporation of India

Wastewater treatment unit in M Pendekal, Kurnool, Power Grid Corporation of India

REFERENCES

  1. EU-INDIA Final Joint Review Meeting, 15-17 June 2016, New Delhi: 4
  2. Water4Crops Newsletter Issue 3, January 2016: 18
  3. Water4Crops Newsletter Issue 3, January 2016: 18
  4. http://www.icrisat.org/energy-from-biomass-of-constructed-wetlands/ accessed on 21.06.2017
  5. Annual Report 2015-2016. Integrating Bio-treated Wastewater Reuse with Enhanced Water Use Efficiency to Support the Green Economy in EU and India (India side)
  6. Annual Report 2015-2016. Integrating Bio-treated Wastewater Reuse with Enhanced Water Use Efficiency to Support the Green Economy in EU and India (India side)
  7. http://www.sabmiller.in/news/improve-rural-livelihoods.aspx accessed on 21.06.2017
  8. Progress Report August 2014 – September 2015. Integrated Water Resource Management in Kolar District of Karnataka for Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Improved Livelihoods.
  9. http://cordis.europa.eu/docs/results/311/311933/final1-water4crops-brochure.pdf accessed on 21.06.2017
  10. Progress Report April – December 2016. Improving Rural Livelihoods Through Farmer-Centric Integrated Watershed Management.
  11. Progress Report April 2015 – March 2016. Improving Rural Livelihoods Through Farmer-Centric Integrated Watershed Management.

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